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Writings and photographs published on this blog are of my own interest and passion. Thus, none of these materials are authenticated with research proof and all are fictional writing with my philosophical thoughts and ideas. Some writing is pertaining to my own personal observation and feelings and therefore, viewers are urged not to draw any conclusion. My zeal of writing and photography doesn’t really mean action and intention. Meanwhile, you can bear with me as you can find many errors on this content of my blog.

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Thursday, July 5, 2018

Importance of Crop Genetic Diversity conservation and sustainable utilization

Bean borloto cultivar.
Seed diversity for etenity



Different chayote cultivars.

Wheat field
Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA) is very important to both human, animals, insect’s pests and pathogens for survival and to maintain ecological balances. Each organism requires these resources to play their roles and parts in making services well to every environmental system. Crop genetic diversity especially the domesticated one play vital role in human nutritional supplement and other socio-economic dimensional role.

 
Outlines of this topic: Importance of crop diversity
1 Contributes to nutritional supplement and climate change mitigation measures
2 Cultural and religious significant
3 Study and education purposes,
4 Breeding materials
Crop genetic diversity contains various constituents of nutrient and active chemical compounds which are useful for body health and curable medicines for diseases. It can be useful like herbal medicines if we study and extract certain valuable compounds. Crops genetic resources can be use as plant based diets rich in minerals, proteins, vitamins, fibers, iron and etc. So, therefore, it is a source of valuable nutrients which we all should grow and cherished.
The world is witnessing ever increasing global temperature resulting global warming and climate change. Crop which is locally adapted to grow and cultivable is not anymore growing and instead unwanted crops cultivars and weeds dominates those areas of fertile lands.  Drying of water source, flood, landslides, rising sea level, soil salinity, desertification   and drought are not uncommon to see and this really burdens our farmers and general public which ultimately posing threat to food security. That is why we really need to grow all types of crops irrespective of yield, production and nutrient content value. Because if one crops fails to grow means other will replace and acts as coping mechanism under such circumstances. Farmers and growers not necessary requires to cultivate in large areas of all crops because its difficult due to labor and cost intensive, land fragmentation, and resources constraint. They just need to save seeds by growing all crops in small patch of land besides growing staple crops in larger area.  This methods and techniques of cultivation will help conserve and save seeds which they can use during time of extreme requirements.

Some example of Drunaghu

Seed germination test in field methods

Seed germination test using paper towel methods




Seed samples of vigna  and legume family

Chili cultivars


In India, an especially rural farmer they at one point of time stopped growing crop diversity and went for mono cropping- one case is cotton cultivation.  Farmers cultivate huge area of cotton because of ready market. They bought insecticides, pesticides from the company through loan and it worked for certain years because of good yield and production. With the passage of time, cotton plant started infested with pests and diseases – with no time spreads to all cotton plants. Farmers got really worried for being unable to repay loans and burden of having no other seeds to cultivate and family food crises results suicidal case by taking insecticides and pesticides as last remedy. These cases depict importance of crop diversity and seeds conservation. This is why very important to cultivate diverse crops and save seeds for future and for eternity.

 
Interns conducting petri-dish methods of germination test

Cucumber plant, example of field gene bank

Beautiful Pumkin plant with flower blossoming 



In Bhutan, we have nine traditional crop varieties which we called (Drunaghu), such as Paddy, Maize, Buckwheat, Finger millet, Amaranth, Vigna, Wheat, Barley and Mustard. This nine traditional crop varieties were require during ritual like Rimdro, (ritual performing for avoiding misfortunes) and  Zhudry Phuensum Tshopa, ( Offering of various items before starting important session) ( ZPT) .  I had seen especially vigna species were served during ZPT ceremony.Therefore, cereal crops diversity contribute to culture and religious purposes which has been a practice from our fore-father times.
 
Paper towel method of germination test 

Maize plant weeding with happy man

Mustard green really juicy 



Crop diversity or crop genetic resources also serve as educational and research purpose to your younger generation in case they wants to  carry out some research of any topics. Such diversity can also make people understand value of crop conservation and their role to environment and ecosystem. Say supposes if students wants to do small assignment on conducting germination test of rice under different media and methods for biology subject. They can refer those seeds and conduct prior to objectives they set. This kind of avenues serves as educational purposes to all students.

Banana plant

Hybred papaya plant

Foxtail millet

Foxtail millet head really beautiful and giant




Plant breeders can take stock seeds as their materials and can breeds with other materials to produce high yielding varieties. Even if they wanted to conduct characterization and evaluation of different crops- those conserved and saved diversity of seeds can serve purpose of breeding material.

Methods of crop diversity conservation
There are many approaches or methods of conserving seeds and they were in the following ways:
·        Insi-tu conservation/Onfarm conservation
·        Excitu- conservation
·        In-vitro and in-vivo  techniques
·        Crop –cryo-preservation

Maize field and vegetable garden



The In-situ conservation of crops means conserving seeds through cultivating in the field of their adaptation in particular area. For example, farmer’s cultivation of rice in their patch of land. This method contributes to seed saving and conservation of materials which they can use all year round.
Lab lab bean blooming




The ex-situ conservation means conservation of seeds outside their natural habitat or actual growing fields through seeds banking and other means of conservation.

In-vitro techniques is conserving seeds/planting materials inside tubes in controlled environment under aseptic condition though tissue culture techniques and usage of different media and plant hormones. But this condition can take only parts of shoots or body especially callus as explants in case of plants. This way can also conserve seeds through multiplication and sub-culture for sustainable utilization
Example of tissue culture techniques
Example of seed banking in vertical deep freezer

Seed banking in horizontal deep freezer




In-vivo techniques means conserving whole body of plant or animals in particular environment under ambient condition. In plant and crops, one can cultivate in one patch of land like garden. Researchers often called as field gene bank where planting materials were cultivate in one field for conservation and sustainable utilization.
Crop-cryo preservation techniques is methods where ex-plants or potential plant parts were kept under -196 degree Celsius in liquid nitrogen for conservation and sustainable utilization. There are several modes of techniques involved in Cryo-preservation  i.e vitrification, encapsulation and usage of cryo-protect ant.  Meanwhile, diversity of any materials is vital in order to meet uncertain conditions of environmental, ecological and ever increasing anthropological  behaviors.







Wednesday, July 4, 2018

My longing homage and devotion to Kyabje Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche,( 1910-1991)

Image result for Best photos collection of Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche
Kyabje Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche. Source: Google
Image result for Best photos collection of Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche
Kyabje Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche. Source: Google.









The Rinpoche was born in eastern Tibet in Dilgo family. His father is governor of that district and siblings were all in monkhood in the monastery and some were reincarnation of great masters. So, his father insisted him to be take care of household chores and carrying roles of father. Although many master advised his parents to enroll young son to be in the monastery. However, his father didn’t allow him to enroll and one day, while playing with his brother in the house, he fell over besides boiling soup pot and badly injured his lower body. Hence father told his son, ‘’ what we should do now?’’. The son replied, ‘’ will help if I may enroll in the monastery and wear monk’s robe ’’. The father with heavy heart accepted and enrolled him to monastery to become monk.  From there on, his health improved and was regconized by the Saint Mipham Namgyal Rinpoche as incarnation of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who was one of the great tertons and chief advocators of the Rime Movement, a non-sectarian movement in Tibetan Buddhism.




Image result for Best photos collection of Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche
Kyabje Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, Source: Google
Although I didn’t have opportunity to meet this great master in real time, but it’s kind of circumstantial phenomenon that I got to knew him through the documentary, “The Words of My Perfect Teacher’’. In this documentary, Kyabje Dzongsar Kyentse Rinpoche talks about perfect teachers and other important aspects of Buddha Dharma. However, There is also one documentary called, ‘’ Brilliant Moon’’ featuring Kyabje Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche’s lives, teachings ,  his root teachers and other so many teachers from all four school of Tibetan Buddhism.  So, this is where I came to know more about Rinpoche’s lives and teachings.
Even though Rinpoche passed away in 1991 when I was five years of age, I got to know him through these documentaries only at the age of 25. From there on, I watched this documentary and read book on ‘’Brilliant Moon’’, whenever my time permits. The following were some accounts of what I felt and known about this great master:
Kyabje Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche root teachers were Shechen Gyaltsab Rinpoche, Shechen Rabjam Rinpoche, and Shechen Kongtrul Rinpoche and later were Jamyang Khyentse Choekey Lodro who insisted him to gets married and spread teaching to all people.  Rinpoche got his early novice ordination from Khyenpo Shanga who is well known Buddhist master during that time. He spent many years in strict retreat around 13 years and written many volumes of commentaries, poems and texts which immensely benefited all people.  Later during Cultural Revolution, Rinpoche and family moved to Bhutan, gave teachings and then to Sikkim, India, Nepal and ultimately to west.  He gave teachings; rebuild monasteries in Tibet, established Buddhist colleges and temple. One of the important monasteries was Samye monastery, Tibet’s most important and sacred monastery was rebuilds to former glory and Shechen Monastery in Boudha, Nepal. Rinpoche also discovered numerous treasures both mind and earth treasure.Khyense Rinpoche is truly the embodiment of much loving kindness, wisdom and compassion. Rinpoche’s teachings has touched and moved many people’s lives worldwide. Rinpoche while during annual prayer ceremony at Kichu Lhakhang in Paro fell sudden ill and passed away in 1991.


Image result for Best photos collection of Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche
Kyabje Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche and Kyabje Khyentse Yangsi Rinpoche .Source: Google.




My personal reflection:
Though Rinpoche is not anymore but I felt his presence and blessings whenever I recollect his glorious smiles and teachings with complete kindness shower to all sentient beings as saw it in the documentaries. The moment I remember your loving kindness, treasure revealing story, commentaries, retreat and had dreams in your retreat at Paro Taktsang,( Tigress nest) of the Great Rigzen Jigme Lingpa and many of your followers sharing inner realization you achieved; gave me complete calmness, body tingling and numbness. Though this feeling of calmness is momentary to me being delusional being, but helps me in controlling my mind, body and speech. Therefore, I considered Rinpoche and Rinpoche’s lineages as my root teacher at all time to come.  I pay my homage and immense respects to you the great master and your great lineages and venerable Khyentse Yangzi Rinpoche for your blessing and loving kindness. May Rinpoche’s work and legacies of important oral transmission, blessing, many other important teachings and commentaries exist for many centuries until all sentient being attain enlightenment.



Thursday, January 5, 2017

On childhood nostalgic memory

Every individual in one way or other had memory to resonance in our life. Albert Einstein said, " Memory is deceptive because it is colored by today's events". Therefore, memory of every people varies from one account of lives to another. Apparently, I had a memory when I was 3-to-4-years-old with my Mom and Dad  during pilgrimage period at Gomphu Kora, ( Name of monastery ) and Chorten Kora, ( Stupa )  in Trashiyangtse Dzongkhag.

Gomphukora Temple. Photo courtesy: Mr. Choki Gyeltshen

Gomphukora Temple, Photo courtesy: Choki Gyeltshen


I cannot exactly remember the year and journeying details account from home  towards that sacred place. But I vividly remembers we were at Gomphu Kora,  receiving blessing and discourse from some important masters which during this write up, I was confirmed by mother that it was from His Eminence Khyabje Namkhai Nyingpo Rimpoche. It was huge maroon colored tents makeshift over all paddy field for blessing and religious ceremonial venue. The people camped in and around monastery and making their own logistic from tarpaulin with  various colors. They came with all bedding and cooking utensils and I remembers that was huge gatherings. As child, I didn't bother listening and praying at ceremonial venue as it I was thinking of child patio ground for playing and most of the time, I was with mom hanging and sitting on her lap and sometimes looking onto  other devotees.  I also flash back clearly the big rivers sounding as that of roaring dragons. And that presently is known as Drangme Chhu, ( name of the river ) flowing beside Gomphu Kora Ney towards Trashigang Chazam side. ( Name of the district and bridge ).
Devotees gathering during Festival. Photo courtesy: Mr. Choki Gyeltshen.

Perhaps I also recalled brown sparkling cliff with pebbles stuck onto each other as it like mosaic formation hanging above Drangmechu. That was observed When I walked out of tent and reaches at edges of paddy fields.  At one point I saw it as pleasure and other as frightening scene; looking through that river beneath cliff. On one account, I clearly remembered, we were travelling to Chorten Kora by DCM or Truck, cannot remembered exactly. Sitting on mother lap and saw there were many passengers on the vehicle, where some had sat on floor and some standing to adjust till Chorten Kora. Now I rewind a memory that my late father was on standing group in the vehicle and passengers were shouting one another to make their own comfortable seat. The atmosphere inside the vehicle floor was noisy and I was at mother lap as she had got bit comfortable seat where she could sat down and provided comfort seat for me as child. And I recapitulates clearly at this moment  like a dream that my father look each time to and fro to me and my mother which I now realized he had unconditional love and care towards us.
Chorten Kora, Photo courtesy:Mr. Choki Gyeltshen


Despite harsh and adventurous travelling, we reached Chorten Kora. Once I entered through stone door gate toward inner side where actual Chorten ( Stupa ) stands; felt amazing height and size hanging onto sky with white reflection. I saw both Chorten and its surround fencing stone walls were all white.   I also saw small temple being built beside this stupa. Large gathering of crowds, roaring rivers with monster cliff,  adventurous journey -seeing all trees movement along road and sawing gorgeous shiny Chorten Kora were my vivid memory normally haunted whenever travelling along this road from Gomphu Kora to Trashiyangtse. 
Now every time I got opportunity to visit Trashi yangtse especially during official tour, at least make a point to visit these places whenever I get time.  So, I paid visit to these sacred places to get blessing and reverberate memory of my late father and the time we family spent together. Even now travelling through this road and its scenic memories kept me illusion of every compounded existence and made me to realized the impermanence of everything.

Ney Dechenphodrang

The weather was clear and morning sun rays looming over Trashiyangtse town. It was 15 day of 9 months in Bhutanese calender and October 16th, 2016 was the day we made short trip to this place. Some people carving stone beside house for construction and few of them just woken and bathing early sun at veranda together with children. Students passes by pedestrian path to, and fro towards respective schools. Booming golden rice field in front of  Belling household with kitchen garden reverberates food security importance.
It was an hour drive from Yangtse town till Womina Prymary School, which is located under Bumdelling gewog. Then one can walk through traditional foot path mostly along the rice field and some time through thick undulating vegetative path. Then you will find three cluster settlements every after 15 to 20 minutes walk. Then approach  suspension bridge and would have to walk little bit upward way and there, one can find a sign board with almost fainted red background with yellow letter indicating clear arrow to this sacred place.
Then after reaching onward to cave, you will hear roaring sound of rivers. There one can see wonderful structure of three storied temple like hanging from cliff looking over rivers, long cypress trees  and other side of vales and mountains. Before step to temple  gate, one should cross small wooden shingle  bridge.
According to care taker, Guru Rimpoche ( Padmasambhava) meditated there for one year and kept body print and many earth treasure that we can get blessed and this was cleary seen at first storey temple. One can also see holy water amazingly come from giant underneath rock beside the temple. Caretaker said, " Traditionally it holds one stored temple built by local people and in 2008, the government built as 3 stored temple."  He says that in the past, very few people used to visit and now frequency and number of people visiting this place has increased. A 5 to 10 minutes walk  away from this sacred place would reached the temple called Zangdo Pelri graciously holding Guru Nangsi Zilnoen statues. But there are also many sacred sites blessed by the 8th century master Padmasambhava along those majestic vales and mountains where one have to walk many hours from Ney Dechen Phodrang accodring to care taker. "But many pilgrimage failed to visit this Neys ( sacred sites) due to lack of time and proper guides," said care taker.
My first-hand true feeling and experiences to this sacred site.
I was bit tired, heated up with some dried sweats clinging on face and moment I heard roaring sound of rivers made me  bit scary  and awful. Then I walked little further and reached plane carved stone on top of this river, found temple at glance fuelling peace on my mind. Then looking again toward river  alongside retaining walls and thick dark vegetation on left hand side gave me frightening,  sense of tingling and numbness bodily experiences. But instantly I realized that deadly evil spirits might have  once heavily inhabited there destroying and giving negative barrier onto Buddha Dharma and therefore, Ugyen Maha Guru ( Padmasambhava) came here and subdued eventually.  This particular thinking at this moment came to my mind because I heard from some learned master during teaching that many evil spirits inhabited in Himalayan region in the past  and Padmasambhava came over,  subdued all to protect and spread Buddha Dharma  for the benefit of all sentient beings. With that instant notion, I suddenly got rid of  fierceness and did visit all 3 stored temple and Zangdopelri  Ney with full joys and happiness.  Then I was praying at last moment to get another opportunity  for blessing and then peacefully returned  with my friends to Trashiyangtse.


Thursday, December 15, 2016

True Champs and Its Characteristics

True championship, leaders, luminaries and master etc and it's qualities have many definitions and factors based on individual perspectives and justifications. My own perspectives were in the following ways:
From good sportsmanship and athletic point of views, one can draw tremendous attention and inspiration of audiences like never before. The player can make enormous efforts wholeheartedly not only for his/her country or club but, making larger audience mind joy full and happiness. Nonetheless, he/she could give its team mates more stamina and confidence through various supports to win the game. People's deep admiration and cheer up combined with individual athletic or players’ motivation for all viewers’ sources of happiness yield positive real champ.
Thus true champs, leaders, and luminaries in all fields of career path and profession often remained as folklore, myth and, as legend in a society. This is because many people both young and old of all generation look to them as true practitioners and as forever leaving image of inspiration. Their contribution, hard work and selfless dedication often epitomize as exemplary for all people in the world. On contrary, untrue and pretext champ withdrawn with self interest ingrained by hidden agendas are often short lived and never prolonging as champ in this day and age.
Meanwhile, true masters and champs of various fields originated in beginning less time and space with different dimensional talents. Some knowledge and skills they possessed were of inborn talents and other learnt with conditions and situations.  The mediocre narrow minded ordinary people may not know at advance or in certain time because, fundamentally their work and passion sometimes truly realized after century and some within year. The very rationale of every true champ in my perspective is to unite and working together with ethic, values, peace and respect for one another.
Notwithstanding, truly,deeply and madly characteristic of every champ and masters were of high definition and were often dynamic, where nobody can understand and interpret unless one were born to have certain qualities  akin to that of them.

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

Everything happened shall have their own destiny


                                            
My Parental history had culture of owning many cattle and oxen according to elders. My childhood days too was with mother looking after cattle at jungle hut until I enrolled to school. My mom has given birth of four, out of which two survived and two were not. That is why we always face labor shortage and normally burdened with many works. So I was finally enrolled to school by my father who inspired me always and longing to learn from day one. My father unfortunately passed away when I was class II keeping many words  ( Khachem) to uncle and neighboring elders who surrounded him during  last minutes i.e. '' Let my son continue  his education and guide him to become better human being with values and you should take care of my son and enroll him learning until he succeed,'' father said to one of my uncle  who is teacher during that time and even he doesn't exist today because of impermanent nature of life.  With this note he passed away peacefully.
So mother and sister had huge responsibility to take care of household chores, cattle and many unfinished business to sustain our family. One day, my mother didn't allow me to continue my  education for almost three months because I have to accompany her to look after cattle.  With heavy heart, I agreed to be with her and during that time; many messages from Dzongkha Lopen( National language subject teacher) to my mom saying, '' innumerable words that I should by any means continue my education''. At one point, my mom went to Dzongskha Lopoen house with palang of ara( container of alcohol) and other  thing to convinced  him that I should discontinue my education by  giving many justifications. However, Dzongkha Lopoen didn't accepted the thing my mom wanted to go by and instead she was given various advises and lectures on importance of education and all.  So, she painstakingly agreed with my Dzongkha Lopoen decision and fortunately I  continued my education almost after three months.
Even then, I supported my mother like going straight to home after school to guard maize fields while she's back journeying with cattle to home and carrying essential food items to jungle hut during weekend. My journey to education up until now is  owing to  many credits and gratitude to Dzongkha Lopoen Tshering, mother and sister for sacrificing their time and helping me in many ways and of course to My King and Country for  providing free education.
I still had much to achieve and realized my full potential based on father's  final messages and my interested destination; if ever I do not encounter unforeseen misfortune and other unavoidable circumstances. Therefore, I believe everyone had their own story and incident to share and making known to interested and lovable readers and writers seem absolute significant.






Health should be the number one priority for all


As saying goes, ''health is wealth'' and therefore, health can contribute many ways in building positive impact on our body, speech and mind. As good health obviously improves one's fitness and well being both physically and mentally. One can pursue his or her missions or aspiration free from worries and pessimism without any doubt or ambivalence, if one is healthy and posses unflinching determination.
In this competitive contemporary world, many things done and achieved amid number of people caught up with various kinds of diseases which they only realized at last moment-by then too late to recover or some vanished in regrettable ways. That is way building one's health together with any businesses in our life proves pivotal.
In this interconnected world of science and technology with advance internet connection, one can browse many health and fitness related information at one go, and following and practicing regularly seems essential.  Advance health fitness activities practicing with proper exercising or jogging  could safe your time and money at later stage of your life.
Google the information soon you entangle with sign and symptoms of anything including diseases and applying proper remedies before visiting hospital at least  benefits a  lot by saving your precious time and further this could also reduce other patient queuing time to meet doctors.
Basically one should also remember what we eat, drinks, act and  thinks; whether going in  proper way especially related to health and fitness scenario. Always complete one's business with proper research and actions accounted a lot if we really were in serious about it.
But on contrary, like procrastination is the theft of time and never walk the talk with hypocrisy  remained in your tips of health advancement plan and programs means, you were the failure and looser towards the end.

Meanwhile, health and fitness is very important and doing and practicing regularly with rightful procedure is vital and is not that difficult or unfathomable like that of rocket science or quantum physics. Nonetheless, I urged everyone to avoid torpor or indolent life style and ephemeral exercises and, instead cultivate myriad of healthy habits principle.