Disclaimer

Writings and photographs published on this blog are of my own interest and passion. Thus, none of these materials are authenticated with research proof and all are fictional writing with my philosophical thoughts and ideas. Some writing is pertaining to my own personal observation and feelings and therefore, viewers are urged not to draw any conclusion. My zeal of writing and photography doesn’t really mean action and intention. Meanwhile, you can bear with me as you can find many errors on this content of my blog.

Publication of any article or photography without prior permission from the author is strictly prohibited.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Book Review







Title: Light in the Darkness
Author: Norbu Jamtsho
Copyright year, 2015 Norbu Jamtsho. All rights reserved.
Published by Mr. Letho, CEO, Druk Satair Corporation Ltd, Samdrup Jongkhar Bhutan.
Cover photo copyright @ 2015. Letho
Edited by Ashley Lenzen
Copy-editing by Mike Lenzen
Cover design by Mike Lenzen



The kind of book is a work of fiction. The subject matter of this book is how we encounter difficulties, suffering and learned to experience or to overcome those challenges through one’s sheer hard work and determination.  Author talks about concerning to religion, culture, folktale, myth and legend and narrated true stories of his childhood and schooling days.
The sole reason why he had come out with this book is to advocate among all readers that nothing is impossible and everything can be possible if one stick onto  commitment and perseverance with full optimism. He wanted to share messages to the world especially the youth that if someone does keep core humanity value like kindness, honesty and put real hard work and determination with faithfulness- lead onto path of success and will serve as exemplary to everyone.
The other rationale author wants to take us though is bitter experience of family drama to schooling challenges to parental caring responsibilities to his younger brothers and sisters. Author also expressed his heartfelt gratitude and acknowledgement to all kind and generous people who supported both financially and morally during time of needs. So, this work of honest and generous sharing also epitomes home take messages that everyone should at all never forget those people who supported and backed up for leading into  success and prosperous lives.
Perhaps it talks about precious human lives, essence of sharing and support cultures onto basic human need i.e. food, shelter and clothing. Author also touched upon importance of education as enlightens from darkness and he expressed immense gratitude to our great His Majesty the  5th King, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck for awarding merit certificate which really further inspire and motivates one and all  to study and success.
The author style or technique of writing is on the basis of narrative non-fiction using poetic mood. In this way it really catches clarity, conscience and cohesion of readers so as to communicate/inspire those following suites. All quotes cited here in this book chapter are educational based quoted by great philosophers.

The nutshell of this book is there are impermanent of all thing and karmic nature based on cause and effect will take us toll.  Focus on hard work and determination with caring society is key note for light in the darkness.

Book reviewer note: Please help or support him by buying this book and pass the message onto book enthusiast and lovers.


Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Germplasm collection program at Geyserling, Dorona, Tsendagang, Tashiding and Kana Gewog in Dagana Dzongkhag from 04/01/2018 to 16/01/2018

Fig.1 Collection team with the seed custodian, our farmers.


Fig.2 A farmer with her traditional seeds 
Fig 1 Bean with staking
Fig.2. Pothoray Borey ( Bean variety) No staking required
Fig.3. Closer view of Pothoray bori
  
Fig.4 Collection team shelling maize for gene-banking

Collection team in the field and this report was the efforts of all members and publishing here in my blog for interested readers and viewers.
1. Mr. Lhab Tshering

2. Mr.Ugyen Phuntsho

3. Mr. Santa Bir Tamang

4. Mr. Wang Tshering

5. Mr. Lobzang Tempa

6. Mr. Tandin Wangchuk

7. Mrs. Chunu Maya Gurung


 Background

The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) were solely established in recognition of its contribution to humankind particularly for food and dietary supplement. Owing to this importance function and mandate, many global communities explore, collect, study and conserve this genetic resource in order to address global food security and nutritional supplement. Akin to that concept, National Biodiversity Centre (NBC) in Bhutan also mandated to explore and conserve all types of plant genetic resources to capture its potential with the passage of time and space.

Every year, Plant Genetic Resources Section (PGR) section of NBC conducts germplasm inventory and collection meeting with our elder farmers especially women who is sole custodian of seeds in a household. So, we this times capture crop diversity collection from five gewogs of Dagana Dzongkhags.









Fig 5. Mustard green ( Saag) grown at Wochaikha, Namgaygang chiwog under Kana Gewog





Fig.6 Mustard green at same location






List of crop diversity captured from the following Gewogs:




1.   Collection from Geyserling Gewog.



Sl

Crop Name
Variety Name

Scientific Name
Remarks

No































1


Maize
Sheti Makai

Zea mays


















2


Bean
Pothori Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris

















3


Mustard
Sershong Tori

Synapsis alba



















4


Mustard green
Rai Sag

























5


Paddy
Khanam

Oryza sativa
















6


Paddy
Chumroo

Oryza sativa
















7


Paddy
Zhum jaaa

Oryza sativa
















8


Beans
Orey

Phaseolus vulgaris
















9


Paddy
Attey Dhan

Oryza sativa















10

Black gram
Kalo Dal

Vigna mungo















11

Paddy
Japa

Oryza sativa















12

Paddy
Mashino Dhan

Oryza sativa















13

Paddy
Ray Maap

Oryza sativa















14

Paddy
Attey

Oryza sativa















15

Maize
Geza Kachung

Zea mays















16

Maize
Geza sep

Zea mays















17

Maize
Geza seip

Zea mays














18

Finger millet
Memja

Eleusine corocana













19

Bean
Pothoray Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris













20

Bean
Dudai Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris













21

Black gram
Kalo Dal

Vigna mungo












22

Rice bean
Pailo Dal

Vigna umbellata












23

Maize
Pailo makai

Zea mays












24

Beans
Hari Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris











25

Soybean
Kalo Badmus

Glycine max











26

Paddy
Balgium Dhan

Oryza sativa













































2. Collections from Dorona Gewog




SL

Crop Name
Variety Name

Scientific Name


NO





































01

Finger millet
Rato Kodo

Eleusine corocana





















02

Beans
Pothorai Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris





















03

Bean
Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris




















04

Bean
Rahma

Phaseolus vulgaris



















05

Maize
Yangtsepa

Zea mays


















06

Mustard
Memba

Synapsis alba

















07

Soybean
Lebi

Glycine max
















08

Sweet
Brama

Fagopyrum esculentuam





Buckwheat





























09

Bean
Orey Changloo

Vigna umbellata















10

Maize
Sheti Makai

Zea mays














11

Rice bean
Pailo Dal

Vigna umbellata














12

Rice bean
Mashum Dal

Vigna umbellata














13

Bean
Dudai Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris














14

Maize
Jabdingka

Zea mays













15

Paddy
Bara changloo

Oryza sativa













16

Bean
Jok Orey

Phaseolus vulgaris












17

Perilla
Nam Balingme

Perilla frutensens












18

Bean
Daran

Phaseolus vulgaris











19

Bitter Buckwheat
Khala

Fagopyrum tartaricum











20

Bean
Pothoray Gew bori

Phaseolus vulgaris











21

Bean
Dudai Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris











22

Bean
Lulay Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris











23

Bean
Gew Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris











24

Bean
Jurali Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris















































25
Bitter Buckwheat
Tithay faper

Fagopyrum tartaricum









26
Sweet
Metharay faper

Fagopyrum esculentum


Buckwheat













27
Maize
Sheti Makai

Zea mays















3. Collections from Tsendagang Gewog







Crop Name
Variety Name

Scientific Name
Remark


















O1

Wheat
Kaa

Triticum aestivum



















02

Finger Millet
Memja

Eleusine corocana


















03

Paddy
Ray Kaap

Oryza sativa


















04

Paddy
Attey

Oryza sativa


















05

Paddy
Mashino

Oryza sativa


















06

Paddy
Bajo Kaap

Oryza sativa

















06

Maize
Yangtsepa

Zea mays

















07

Maize
Yangtsepa

Zea mays
















08

Bean
Semchum sep

Phaseolus vulgaris
















09

Bean
Semchum Naap

Phaseolus vulgaris
















10

Bean
Bera shebi

Phaseolus vulgaris
















11

Bean
Gew Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris
















12

Bean
Jaray Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris















13

Bean
Pothoray Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris














14

Rice bean
Pailo dal

Vigna umbellata













15

Mustard
Tori ( M27)

Brassica spp.












16

Sweet
Methray faper

Fagopyrum esculentum





Buckwhear
























17

Paddy
Timburey

Oryza sativa











18

Soybean
Sahley Badmash

Glycine max


























































6

Germplasm exploration and collection in Dagana Dzongkhag








4. Collections from Tashiding Gewog



SL
Crop Name
Variety Name


Scientific Name
Remarks
NO






































01
Maize
Pailo Makai


Zea Mays




















02
Maize
Sheto Makai


Zea mays




















03
Finger millet
Kalo kodo


Eleusine corocana


















04
Bean
Pothoray Bori


Phaseolus vulgaris


















05
Bean
Haray Bori


Phaseolus vulgaris

















06
Paddy
Attey Dhan


Oryza sativa

















07
Rice bean
Pailo Dal


Vigna umbellata















08
Niger
Fellingay


Guizotia abyssinica
















09
Bean
Hari Bori


Phaseolus vulgaris















10
Rice Bean
Mashum


Vigna umbellata














11
Sorghum
Junailo


Sorghum bicolor














12
Beans
Thangray Bori


Phaseolus vulgaris













13
Foxtail millet
Ran


Setaria italica












14
Perilla
Naam


Perilla frutescenes











15
Finger millet
Kalo kodo


Eleusine coracana










16
Bitter Buckwheat
Tithey faper


Fagopyrum tartaricum









17
Sesame
Til


Sesamum indicum









18
Bean
Rahma Bori


Phaseolus vulgaris









19
Paddy
Bondey


Oryza sativa









20
Paddy
Mashino Dhan


Oryza sativa








21
Paddy
Timburay(
Bara
Oryza sativa



changloo
























22
Paddy
Bara Tsalo


Oryza sativa























 5 Collections from Kana Gewog


SLNO
Crop Name
Variety Name

Scientific Name
Remark














1
Paddy
Tawli

Oryza sativa
















2
Paddy
Kali Dhan

Oryza sativa















3
Bitter
Tithey Faper

Fagopyrum tartaricum


Buckwheat

























4
Sweet
Methray faper

Fagopyrum esculentum


Buckwheat

























5
Paddy
Mashino Dhan

Oryza sativa













6
Rice bean
Pailo Dal

Vigna umbellata












7
Maize
Sheti makai

Zea mays












8
Paddy
Attey Dhan

Oryza sativa












9
Finger millet
Kalo kodo

Oryza sativa











10
Bean
Pothoray Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris











11
Sweet
Methray faper

Fagopyrum esculentum


Buckwheat





















12
Sorghum
Potshey

Sorghum bicolor









13
Bean
Gew Bori

Phaseolus vulgaris








14
Mustard
Peka

Brassica spp.



















 Results and Discussion

 Collection team had collected total paddy samples of 24, maize - 14, beans- 30, vigna - 9, millet - 7, buckwheat - 9, mustard - 5, soybean - 3, niger-01 and sesame- 01. Among nine indigenous crop varieties of Bhutan, (Drunaghu), amaranth and barley were not collected because it has been totally extinct from the farmer’s field. Dagana dzongkhag being cardamom and citrus growing areas, Drunaghu crops which relates to our Buddhist culture and tradition was not really grown by our farmers at the moment.

The following reasons contribute towards Drunaghu and vigna species extinction:

Rural urban migration
Human wildlife conflict
Land fragmentation
Low productivity with less market oreientation
Dominated by citrus and cardamom owing to market force
People working on contract for immediate income causes labor shortages
Less knowledge and awareness on crop diversity, value addition and product development
Less knowledge pertains to nutritional supplement  and its health benefits. 
      




Meanwhile, almost all farmers will strive to grow these important horticultural crops if they were aware of plant diversity and its potential compound to humankind existence. Therefore, we encouraged farmers who are sole custodian of seeds to at least grow some in few areas if not possible larger areas to conserve and avoid seed extinction.


 Way forward

We have captured almost all cereal crops particularly the very rarest one; sesame, Niger and foxtail millet. Some crops like little millet, barley and local vegetable seeds were not in farmstore and therefore, didn’t collect it this time. Meanwhile, leguminous plant like Rori Dal (local name) was not collected because it still has been not harvested and remained in the field. Requires collecting missing samples like amaranth, barley and rori dal (local name) in future with the passage of time and space.

We are also happy to enclose herewith the picture captured during our collection trip:




Fig 1.Wheat standing crop in the field 
Fig.2 Wheat
 Fig.3. Wheat with our colleague Mr Lopzang
 Fig.4 Landscape in waichaikha village
Fig.5 Lablab bean
Fig.6. Colacasia species
Fig.7  Pea variety growing on field bund
Fig.8 Beautiful blooming of pea 
 Fig.9 Mixed cropping garden

                                      Fig.10.  Collection team served with their local specialties.



Fig.11 Filling the collection form and tea on the middle
Fig.12 Some beautiful landscape mostly paddy
Fig 13 Random shot of landscape
Fig 14. Scene after done with collection form filled up and seeds packing in cotton bags
Fig 15. Beautiful kitchen garden with field guard houses

                                         Fig.16 Pothoray dal in the field.